HENRY III, KING OF ENGLAND b 1207 and Eleanor of Provence b 1217

King of England Henry III was born on 8 Oct 1207 in Westminster, London, England. He was christened in 1207 in Bermondsey, London, England. He died on 23 Nov 1272 in Westminister, Middlesex, England. He was buried on 27 Nov 1272 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London. He married Eleanor of Provence on 21 Jan 1234/1235 in Canterbury, Kent, England. Eleanor of Provence was born in 1217 in Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France. She was christened about 1223. She died on 1 Jul 1291 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England. She was buried on 7 Jul 1291 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England.

Henry III King of England, son of John “Lackland” King of England and Isabella of Angouleme Queen of England, was born on 1 Oct 1207 in Westminster, London, England, United Kingdom, died on 16 Nov 1272 in Westminister, Middlesex, England at age 65, and was buried on 20 Nov 1272 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London.

Henry III was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of thelred the Unready. England prospered during his reign and his greatest monument is Westminster, which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor.

He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal, but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta[citation needed] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first “parliament” in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine.

Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle. He was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoul. The coronation was a simple affair, attended by only a handful of noblemen and three bishops. In the absence of a crown (the crown had recently been lost with all the rest of his father’s treasure in a wreck in East Anglia a simple golden band was placed on the young boy’s head, not by the Archbishop of Canterbury (who was at this time supporting Prince Louis of France, the newly-proclaimed king of France) but by another clergyman — either Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, or Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the Papal legate. In 1220, a second coronation was ordered by Pope Honorius III who did not consider that the first had been carried out in accordance with church rites. This occurred on 17 May 1220 in Westminster Abbey.

Under John’s rule, the barons had supported an invasion by Prince Louis because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry’s regents immediately declared their intention to rule by Magna Carta, which they proceeded to do during Henry’s minority.

In 1244, when the Scots threatened to invade England, King Henry III visited York Castle and ordered it rebuilt in stone. The work commenced in 1245, and took some 20 to 25 years to complete. The builders crowned the existing moat with a stone keep, known as the King’s Tower.

Henry’s reign came to be marked by civil strife as the English barons, led by Simon de Montfort, demanded more say in the running of the kingdom. French-born de Montfort had originally been one of the foreign upstarts so loathed by many as Henry’s foreign counsellors. Henry, in an outburst of anger, accused Simon of seducing his sister and forcing him to give her to Simon to avoid a scandal. When confronted by the Barons about the secret marriage that Henry had allowed to happen, a feud developed between the two. Their relationship reached a crisis in the 1250s when de Montfort was brought up on spurious charges for actions he took as lieutenant of Gascony, the last remaining Plantagenet land across the English Channel. He was acquitted by the Peers of the realm, much to the King’s displeasure.

Henry also became embroiled in funding a war in Sicily on behalf of the Pope in return for a title for his second son Edmund, a state of affairs that made many barons fearful that Henry was following in the footsteps of his father, King John, and needed to be kept in check, too. De Montfort became leader of those who wanted to reassert Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baronial council. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, which effectively abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons to deal with the business of government and providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Henry was forced to take part in the swearing of a collective oath to the Provisions of Oxford.

In the following years, those supporting de Montfort and those supporting the king grew more and more polarised. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1262 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. The Royalists were led by Prince Edward, Henry’s eldest son. Civil war, known as the Second Barons’ War, followed. The charismatic de Montfort and his forces had captured most of southeastern England by 1263, and at the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was defeated and taken prisoner by de Montfort’s army. While Henry was reduced to being a figurehead king, de Montfort broadened representation to include each county of England and many important towns-that is, to groups beyond the nobility. Henry and Edward continued under house arrest. The short period that followed was the closest England was to come tocomplete abolition of the monarchy until the Commonwealth period of 1649-1660 and many of the barons who had initially supported de Montfort began to suspect that he had gone too far with his reforming zeal.

Henry married Eleanor of Provence. The child from this marriage was:

  1. Edward I “Longshanks” King of England

Eleanor of Provence, daughter of Raymond Bberenger V Count of and Beatrice

Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 26 June 1291) was Queen Consort of King Henry III of England. Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198-1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1206-1266), the daughter of Tomasso, Count of Savoy and his second wife Marguerite of Geneva. All four of their daughters became queens. Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty. Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being “jamque duodennem” (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.

Eleanor was married to Henry III, King of England (1207-1272) on January 14, 1236. She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his impoverished kingdom. Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated. Eleanor and Henry had five children:

  1. Edward I (1239-1307)
  2. Margaret of England (1240-1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland
  3. Beatrice of England (1242 – 1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany
  4. Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296)
  5. Katharine (25 November 1253 – 3 May 1257)

Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules.[citation needed] It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249. Her youngest child, Katharine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When she died aged three, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief.She was a confident consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of cousins, “the Savoyards,” and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry’s reign.[citation needed] Eleanor was devoted to her husband’s cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry’s cause. On July 13, 1263, she was sailing down the Thames on a barge when her barge was attacked by citizens of London. In fear for her life, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas FitzThomas, the mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London’s home.

In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England. She stayed on in England as Dowager Queen, and raised several of her grandchildren — Edward’s son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice’s son John. When her grandson Henry died in her care in1274, Eleanor mourned him and his heart was buried at the priory at Guildford she founded in his memory. Eleanor retired to a convent but remained in touch with her son and her sister, Marguerite.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England