Bermard Snow Sr. – 1856 to 1858 Trail Stories

 

Bernard Snow Uninta Library

Bernard Snow Sr. was the father of Minnie Snow (John) Dastrup. He was born January 22nd 1822 in Pomfret, Windsor County, Vermont. He was the son of Ebenezer Snow and Polly Hayes. On November 24th 1841 he married his cousin Louise M. King at Boston, Massachusetts.  Three children were born to them:  Sidney, Flora Melisa, and Bernard.  Flora and Bernard only lived a few months, only Sidney survived.  A short time after Bernard’s death, he sailed for California from Boston Harbor with a small group of people.  Most likely in search of Gold. While Bernard was in California, it was next to impossible to get a letter or message from the East where his wife and son were. Louisa grew weary of waiting for her husband, and started for Utah. Her plans were to stay with her most beloved sister, Melisa King Wallace, until her husband could come to Utah to join her. Her desire to be with her sister, and nearer her husband, made her feel stronger than she was. Louise only got part way to Utah when she died on the plains, July 7, 1850. This left Sidney, who was only six, to come on alone with the company. Bernard learned of his wife’s death months later, from her sister, Melisa. He came from California overland to Utah in 1851 to be with his son, but the boy died one year after his arrival. He joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints an accepted a mission call to England. His missionary journal accounts for his travels originating in the Salt Lake valley and ending in England, just the opposite from most immigrants to the Salt Lake valley: Following are excerpts from his journal describing his journey from Salt Lake to Florence (Omaha), Nebraska:

Memoranda of Travel Bernard Snow

Wednesday, September l0, 1856: Left Salt Lake City agreeably to the appointment by W.C. Kimball at 2 P.M. in company with George Gates, and Thomas Bullock. Took what is called Killians cut-off, camped at the foot of the big mountain.

Thursday September 11th 1856: Went over big mountain, camped at the sixth crossing of East Canyon creek, about noon to wait the arrival of P.P. Pratt and the other missionaries. Bro. S.F. NESLIN who belonged to our wagon was also in the rear. We were kindly assisted over the mountains by C.A. Huntington with a span of Indian ponies, for which Bro. Gates traded a span of mares. Bro. Bullock and myself slept by the animals about one quarter mile from camp while Bro. Gates guarded the wagon. Ice froze in our pail about one-half inch thick. We were here overtaken by D. Arney and two young men who were with pack animals, from the south, and whose presence we had not particularly desired.

Friday, September 12 1856: Started to within a short half past 11 A.M. company in rear. at about 8 o’clock in the morning and drove distance of Weaver bottom and camped at one-half past 11 A. M. Waited the rest of the day for Neslin and the company in rear.

Saturday September 13th 1856: None of the company has arrived this morning. While Bro. Gates was on guard this morning about 4 o’clock there was a stampede of our animals, when he aroused the camp we soon recovered them again. Started about 7:30 A.M. arrived at the mouth of Echo Canyon at 10:30 A.M. where we waited the arrival of the company, which came at about 12 noon. Started at 3 P.M. went about 8 miles up the canyon.

Sunday September 14th 1856: Went about 2 miles west of Cache Cave to noon. Met Capt. N. Bowley with 13 wagons, Benj. Clapp with 14 wagons and J.Y. Green with 24 wagons of merchandise for Gilbert & Gerrish. We camped about one-half mile east of the “Needle”, where we had some hail with thunder and lightning.

Monday 15th September 1856: Camped at the muddy. Tuesday September 16 1856: Nooned at Robinsons Fort where we were kindly received by Bro. Lewis Robinson. Camped for the night at Black’s Fork where we were visited by Bros. Bullock and Pulsipher from Fort Supply and treated us to some potatoes, turnips, butter arid cheese, for which we felt thankful.

Wednesday September 17th 1856: Passed a vote of thanks to our brethren before mentioned, then bade them goodbye. Nooned at Hams Fork, we camped at Blacks Fork 15 miles from Green River.

Thursday September 18th 1856: About 10:30 A.M. met Capt. Edmund Ellsworth with 57 Hand Carts & 230 souls. We met them as we were descending the ridge to Green River. We stopped our teams and waited their approach. The sight was one of the most impressive I have ever beheld. We formed in a line, having alighted from our wagons, and as they approached we all joined in the shout “Hosanna! Hosanna! Hosanna! to God and the Lamb forever and ever. Amen Amen and Amen.” Had a short conversation with Capt. Ellsworth who informed me that they had got along very well and without much grumbling. They make from 20 to 25 miles per day. They all appear hale and hearty, though very much sunburned. They are in excellent spirits. After about 10 minutes talk we bid them welcome to the valleys of the mountains and was on our separate ways. 2 Nooned at Green River crossing at the lower ford and taking a cut-off from there to Big Sandy about 10 miles from its mouth. Poor feed as it had been fed down till our animals had a poor chance.

Friday, September 19 1856: Nooned at the crossing of Big Sandy–poor feed. Camped at the Little Sandy on the cutoff to the south of the main road. Poor feed and no water except what is obtained by sinking holes in the sand, found in some places in the bed of the stream.

Saturday September 20th 1856: Nooned at Pacific Creek on the same cut off. Camped about two and one-half miles below Pacific Springs in company with Capt. Bunkers Hand Cart company mostly of Welch Saints. Bro. Bullock and myself went to one part of the camp where we were richly entertained by their singing. They feel first rate.

Sunday September 21st 1856: Nooned at the junction of main road and the cutoff, and camped about one-half mile from one of its branches.

Monday September 22nd 1856: Camped with Capt. Crofts’ Co. from the Cherokee nation. Held a meeting with them in the evening, preaching by P.P. Pratt. We got a bottle or two of milk for our wagon.

Tuesday September 23rd 1856: Camped about one and one-half miles east of Bitter Cottonwood. Got some antelope meat which Bro. Ridout and others killed.

Wednesday, September 24th 1856: Nooned near the crossing of Sweet Water. Camped at Independence Rock in company with F.D. Richards, C.H. Wheelock, J. Furgerson, W.C. Dunbar, George D. Grant, William H. Kimball, “J.T.D. McAllister, D. Spencer, Vancott, Joseph A. Young and others, returning missionaries. Oh how our hearts leaped for joy to meet those faithful and tried ones, and to have an opportunity of congratulating them on their near approach to their loved homes, where anxious and fond hearts were ready to hail them with a holy and hearty welcome. This night is one long to be remembered by all present. How earnest and solemn were our invocations to the Lord, God of Israel, how sweet was the melody which floated on that mild evening air, and rose from beneath the great dome of natures temple to our Father. Sleep had no power to woo us till a late hour at night, and cheating dabliance set us far beyond our usual hour for starting in the morning. Here we got news of the death of A.W. Babbitt, Sutherland, Margetts, Cowdey and others by the Cheyenne Indians and of their feelings of hostility.

Thursday September 25th 1856: Nooned at Grease Wood Creek, rather poor feed. Camped at Willow Springs with scarcely any feed.

Friday September 26th: Drove without nooning to ford of the Platte River where we camped with very poor feed.

Saturday – 27th: Drove to Crooked Muddy where we camped at about 1 o’clock for the rest of the day — good feed. Started about 10 A.M. and nooned at Deer Creek – good. Camped at the A.La Parelle where we got good feed by driving our animals about one and one-half miles from camp to the mouth of this stream on the Platte. Here we discovered a coal bed and also iron ore.

Monday – 29th: Nooned at the second ford of the Platte–tolerable feed. In the forenoon we met Bro. Smoot with the church train. Also P. Rockwell with six wagons, 4 of which were A.W. Babbitt’s (deceased). Camped about 15 mi. from ford on the north side.

Tuesday- 30th: Nooned on the north of Platte about 12 miles from our camp ground good – feed. Here we crossed the river and camped at what we supposed to be Horse Shoe Creek, about 10 miles from our place of nooning. Here we were overtaken by J. Gamsell and others.

Wednesday, October 1, 1856: Drove about 21 miles to the junction of the Pioneer road on the river. These 21 miles the road does not touch the river we found water in only two places, and no feed of any account. Camped about a mile below this point on the river with plenty of feed.

Thursday – 2nd: Passed Laramie about noon and camped some 12 miles below. Went 2 miles to shoot a Buffalo, and found them oxen from a government wagon.

Friday- 3rd: Camped at Horse Creek in fine grass. Saturday – 4th: Took the cutoff from that place to the south of Scotch Bluffs and reached the river in time to camp. Here we discovered that the last Hand Cart Co. had passed up the river road. We camped about 10 miles above Chimney Rock. I was here appointed Capt. of the Guard, in place of Bro. Chas, Hubbard resigned. About 9 o’clock A.M. we passed the last Co. of immigration. Capt. Hunt with a company of wagons and saints, mostly English among whom was Bro. James Sinforth. They were not yet moving, but were digging a grave for a child. We camped some 10 miles below Chimney Rock with good feed.

Monday, October 6th: Drove about 20 miles and camped about one-half mile below a creek the name of which I did not know. From this time I kept no account of the route as we were not on the road corresponding with the guide, but we followed the river most of the time, the road may be considered feasible though from what I can learn from those who have traveled the north side of the river I think that road would be the most desirable, especially as that is the course marked by the guide (Clayton) Crossed the river to the north side at Ft. Kearney at the head of Grand Island, Bros. Gates, Bullock, Neslin, Taylor, Ross Kelley and myself arrived in Florence, Oct. 27th having left the balance behind on the afternoon of the 25th near the liberty pole. They arrived about noon on the 28th.

After a delay of two or three days 17 of us took passage on the Steamboat A.C. Gooding for St. Louis, the balance of our company going across Iowa. We were obliged to pay 12 dollars deck passage, and were out 11 days getting down. We were very kindly treated by the breather in Florence, and Bros. James and Alex Piper in particular we feel under obligation to. 5 I spent some time (8 days) in St. Louis during which time, at the suggestion of Bro. Geo. A. the Saints under the presidency of James Hart made a social and intellectual feast in the church, on which occasion I by request read a portion of the Tragedy of Virginias. By this means I obtained money to pay my passage to New York, many of the brethren who had the means, having gone on before me. I left St. Louis Nov. 20th and after three days and three nights ride arrived in New York Sunday morning the 23rd at 3:30 A.M. Being entirely a stranger there I put up at the Girard House, where I slept till about 8 o’clock when I sallied forth in search of Bro. John Taylor when I by chance met Bros. Geo. Gates, A.P. Shumway and others. Found the place of meeting in Broome St. and attended in the afternoon and evening. Having consent from Bro. Taylor to visit my relatives in Vermont and Mass. I left N.Y. on Wed. morning Nov. 26th for Vt. stopped over night in Holyoke, Mass. with my cousin Gustavus Snow, and arrived next day it being Thanksgiving Day at my fathers. I took them quite by surprise, as they had not heard a word of my coming. I obtained consent to preach in the old meeting house (the only one in the place) on the following Sunday, and I improved it to the best of my ability, preaching in 3 discourses about five hours, which was as much as my lungs would endure, as I was laboring under the effects of a severe cold at that time. The people here are a great part of them confirmed spiritualists, and it seems almost impossible to reach them with the truth. The devil has persuaded them that they have the genuine faith and the same powers and gifts that were anciently possessed by the primitive Saints. I was however kindly treated by all my kindred in those parts. I left Vt. for Boston on the 13th of December accompanied by my brother Gerry, who kindly paid my fare to Boston (about $5). My father gave me a pair of new pants and about $8 in money. I arrived in Boston the same evening and went to Cambridge and put up with my Brother Eben and found there Bro. Herman also. Sunday, December 14, 1856: Visited brother Seymour who also lives in Cambridge and whose wife I had never seen before. The next morning the 15th six of my father’s ten children met together and we passed a very pleasant evening. Herman, Gerry, Eben, Bernard, Edna and Seymour, besides we had Seymours, Hermans, and Eben’s wives and Edna’s husband, making quite a party. I spent about two weeks here and preached in Boston twice, when I felt like proceeding on my journey, but unfortunately I had an affliction come upon me in the shape of one of Jobs’ comforters, under my right arm, which disabled me for some ten days. I then bespoke a passage on the ship M.E. Balch for Liverpool.

Returning home from mission in England – Crossing the plains

Trip Summary

Was this the Lord’s army, terrible with banners? (see D&C 109:73). Some participants thought so! It was virtually an all male company, composed principally of Mormon missionaries called home from Canada, the U.S., and England because U.S. President James Buchanan had sent an army against the Saints in Utah. Missionaries coming from England did have weapons (eight rifles and six swords), and they did buy guns in New York. While on the plains the men were to carry their weapons always, and at dusk they were to put out all fires. Rumor had it that this company was going to Utah “to clean the inside of the platter, then clean out the Johnson army, then go back to Jaxon [sic] County to take [possession] of the country and [build] up the center Stake of Zion.” Later, human failings became apparent, leading to the conclusion that “we was not [going] to Jaxon-County just [yet].”

At first, various groups of missionaries straggled westward. The European contingent traveled from New York to Burlington, Iowa, by rail. From there, most of them continued on foot, horseback, or by wagon to Fort Des Moines, where they would complete their outfits for the plains. One man, alone, took the luggage and a box of guns to Florence, Nebraska Territory, via steamboat. Arriving there on April 27, he found that nearly 100 missionaries had already assembled, but the party from Burlington was still en route. These arrived on the 30th, with 10 wagons and 53 head of horses and mules-and with John W. Berry in charge. As the company was about to depart for the plains, a diarist, worried about possible perils of the journey (a hostile army and war-like Indians) but, he said, the missionaries would rely on the Lord to see them peacefully through. The company left Florence on May 1, traveling to the Little Papillion. Here, it formally organized with John Berry as captain. Most of the animals soon escaped back to Florence and had to be rounded up.

The train crossed over a bridge on the Elkhorn River and passed Liberty Pole Camp and Fremont on the Platte. It reached the Loup Fork River and Genoa, a Mormon settlement. Here the captain weighed all clothing and bedding. For each traveler, the first 50 pounds of luggage would go free of charge, but he would have pay 15 cents per pound for any excess (up to 75 pounds). Some had to discard belongings. The company also left behind 750 pounds of freight belonging to the Brigham Young Express and Carrying Company. Nine emigrant men, one woman, and two children joined the train at Genoa, making 65 people in the company. Because Loup Fork was running high, the train could not use the ford, so the wagons were ferried across on two canoes. The animals swam the river and then scattered; a search was made and the livestock recovered. It was stormy and cold.

Ten miles further along the European missionaries caught up with Canadian and American elders led by David Brinton. The two groups united making 112 individuals and 20 wagons in the company. May 14, Ogallala Sioux visited the camp because someone in the company had foolishly set fire to the prairie. Captain Berry appeased the natives with a half-bushel of biscuits and three plugs of tobacco. The party camped at Lone Tree and it had to repair the bridge over Wood River before crossing. Believing that the soldiers at Fort Kearny planned to detain all Mormons, the train passed that outpost at night. It was raining and the atmosphere seemed dense. The travelers used signal lights to help them stay together. Stopping at 2:00 a.m., the men tied their tired animals to the wagons and put out a strong guard. The next day dawned stormy and foggy; nevertheless, the train pushed on, the fog continuing to provide cover until the train reached Buffalo Creek.

The company reached the junction of the North and South Platte Rivers on May 19. The next day, seven horses ran away; only five were recovered after a chase of some 50 miles. The weather was cold and windy. There were thundershowers, and the road had become sandy and hilly. The train overtook two German families at Black Mud Creek. Camp on May 24 was opposite Ash Hollow. Sioux were camped nearby but they were friendly and traded with the company. From time to time the travelers saw wagon trains on the south side of the Platte, but the river was running high and virtually impassable. On May 26 the train camped opposite Court House Rock. The following day they nooned nearly opposite Chimney Rock and in the afternoon met the Mormon escort of Colonel Thomas L. Kane, who was returning east after negotiating a peace between Utah and the U.S. Army. The escort delivered a letter from Brigham Young in which he advised Captain Berry to avoid contact with the troops. When the train passed Scotts Bluff snow-clad Laramie Peak could be seen in the distance. Ice formed on the drinking water.

On May 30 the company reached a fork in the road. One branch led to Fort Laramie via a ferry across the North Platte; the other stayed north of the river. Fearing the soldiers, Captain Berry elected to follow the northern route, intending to pass the fort at night. But after his train was discovered by government mail wagons, the captain decided to go on in full daylight. When the train was within about three miles of the fort, however, a violent storm erupted-rain, hail, and thunder-and continued until the company was well past Laramie and out of sight. The soldiers apparently did not see the train; the missionaries were convinced that the storm had been divine intervention on their behalf. Nevertheless, some of the travelers were unhappy with Captain Berry and on June 3, while camped opposite Deer Creek Station, it was necessary to “preach . . . a reformation.”

On June 5 the train passed Platte Bridge and stopped at the upper ford. Here, Thomas Bullock, who was clerk of the train, wrote the following about the the previous five days the company had traveled: “a circuitcus [circuitous] and hilly road, . . . then ascended a mountain . . . passed over a divide and descended by ravines to Box Elder Creek . . . wound through some picturesque bluffs . . . traveled over the tops of Alpine Mountains . . .[and passed] over a heavy sandy road.” He was “satisfied that the last 55 miles [had been] the worst of the three roads to travel and that ‘Johnson’s guide’ for the north side [of the river] is made to sell and deceive the traveler as to distance.” Now, the travelers found the main road rutted and rough due to constant use by government wagons. A large herd of sheep passed by. The missionaries discarded their wagon covers and their tent poles and stakes to lighten the loads.

On June 7, the train forded the Sweetwater rather than pay $2.00 per wagon to use a bridge, and it passed both Independence Rock and Devil’s Gate (where the travelers saw the ruins of a recently destroyed Mormon fort). The train crossed the Sweetwater four times on the 8th. Torrents of rain, followed by snow, fell for two days. The animals began to fail. The travelers passed Ice Spring and took the Seminoe Cutoff. At Mountain Springs (possibly Mormon Springs) they met an eastward-bound Californian who had wintered in Salt Lake City; he told them of recent developments there. Here, too, members of the party cached iron axles and wheels. It had been snowing. The company met five
eastward-bound government wagons loaded with teamsters. It also met Utah Mormons going east to retrieve goods stored at the last crossing of the Platte. The Utahans gave the missionaries beef and bacon and reported that the army was about to leave its winter quarters (Fort Bridger). They advised Captain Berry to follow a route that would carry him around and ahead of the army. An ox and a cow wandered into camp. Regarding these as a gift of providence, the travelers slaughtered them and distributed fresh meat all around.

The company camped near South Pass and on the Little Sandy. It passed an area littered with wagon iron and concluded that this was where Mormon guerrillas had burned a government train some months before. A mail wagon brought news that part of the army had left Fort Bridger on its way to Salt Lake. Berry’s train took the Kenney Cut Off, traveling into the night, until the moon went down. The company reached Green River on June 14. Here the men raised a sunken ferryboat and in a few hours got all the wagons safely across. The train then followed a northwest course passing “over a long and very steep hill” to the headwaters of Ham’s Fork, “then traveled over a circuitous road, winding over a very high mountain, descending by steep pitches.” Later it “went over another high mountain and dropped down to Bear River, then traveled up it several miles, [the men] making [their own] road through sage brush.” They “continued making a road up the east side of Bear River to the Big Bend.” Here, because they were unable to cross the river, they formed a ferry out of wagon boxes and ferried the freight across by pulling on long ropes. During this crossing, one man nearly drowned.

June 19, after making a road along “nearly a south southwesterly course for about 12 miles, then go[ing] up a ravine [and], taking a southwest course over a succession of gentle hills,” the company reached the head of Echo Canyon. Rain was falling. After a frosty night, the train reached the main road again, about one mile below Cache Cave. As the travelers moved down the canyon, they passed some very surprised soldiers who were repairing the road and building bridges. The soldiers said that the army was just 12 miles behind them. The missionaries cheered when they saw the fortifications Utah men had built in Echo Canyon. Four wagons with mule teams and then another party of 26 merchant wagons passed. Berry’s company forded the Weber River and, on June 21, crossed East Canyon Creek 11 times. They then passed over Big and Little Mountains, descended Emigration Canyon, and with 110 individuals, 20 wagons, and 93 animals, entered a nearly vacant Salt Lake City as most of the inhabitants had fled south. Two days later the company arrived in Provo, temporary headquarters of the Church; there it disbanded.

Following are stories from Bernard Snow’s travel companions:

Coombs, Isaiah Moses, Diary, in Isaiah Moses Coombs, Collection 1835-1938, reel 1, box 1, fd. 3, vol. 8, 16-66.

Monday May 3 Bought part of 3 set of harness for $5. Got our horses shod[.] fit up our carriage & are now nearly ready for a start.

Tuesday 4 Waited on D.O.R. till 2 oclock P.M. & then as he had not yet got another horse we borrow’d one of Mr. Amon [Ammond] & started out. Mr A has lent us his pony till we get to Genoa & then we must make other arrangements. Mr A. is with us as is also R. H. W. I. Bull & another man. We have come 6 m. & are camped on the Little Papae [Papillion] for the night. I am happy to be thus far on our journey

Wednesday 5 We are camped between Elk Horn & Shell creeks with Messrs Brooks & Morris and several Pawnies.

Thursday 6 On shell creek to night with Fell & family

Friday 7 We have come 30 miles today & are camped near Lookingglass [Looking Glass]. It has rained all day. Very cold. Supped on dry crackers

Saturday 8 Arrived at Genoa about 11 oclock A.M. This is 100 m. from Florience [Florence.] Have found a great many old friends. Dined with P. Allen. We are all in good health & spirits though very tired.

Sunday 9 Attended a meeting this afternoon & enjoyed myself[.] Fell in with [blank space] Thorp & other old friends. D.O.R bought another horse to day. We are now on the West side of Loup fork. Had a hard time in crossing. A pretty day. We are organized into 9 separate co[mpanie]s though we shall all travel together. The European missionaries numbering 72 comprise the 1st Co. & the American Missionaries with two or 3 others comprise the 2nd Co. I belong to the latter Co. The 1st Co. have not yet crossed the river. John Berry is Capt of the 1st Co & Dav[id] Brinton is Cap. of the 2nd Co. Our animals are in rather bad condition but we think they will go home safe, hope so.

Monday 10 Spent a miserable night in the rain. Drove out about 4 miles & camped. At 4 oclock P.M. D.O.R. & I returned to Genoa on horseback. Bought a bu. of potatoes & a bu. of buckwheat flour of Thorp. Sis Thorp says that Fanny will not get married before she sees me. A.M. Cannon came out to camp with us. Our Co. now numbers 31 men 1 woman & 3 children. The wind continues very high. The 1st co [company] has not got over yet.

Tuesday 11 Came out 6 m this morning & camped on Loup Fork to wait for the 1st Co. which came up this afternoon & camped with us. They number 71 men, which added to 31 makes us 102 strong. We are all with the exception of 3 or 4 well armed with good pistols and knives. I carry constantly a brace of pistols a large bowie knife & a U.S. yauger. I despise to carry deadly weapons but under present circumstances I am obliged to do it in order to defend myself in case of an attack which may happen.

Wednesday 12 Travelled 25 m. are campd on a slough, no wood. I am very tired as I have walked nearly all day. [illegible] D.O.R.’s son was baptized yesterday

Thursday 13 25m. C. on Prairie creek. pas’d the wells 15 m back.

Friday 14 Have come 24 m. C. on Wood river near a lone tree. Saw a band of Indians & several herd of buffalo on Prairie creek. No accidents thus far. Am to stand guard tonight

Saturday 15

Sunday 16 We nooned on Wood river yesterday untill 4 oclock P.M. We then hitched up passed Fort Kearney, travelled untill midnight & camped in the road untill this morning. Some of the boys got lost from the train in the dark & fired pistols as signals. At first we didn’t know who it was & imagined we were surrounded by an enemy. We got our arms ready but soon found we had no use for them[.] It rained during the night and in a great amount obliterated our trail. We got up this morning early & came on to Elm creek before breakfast a distance of 9 or 10 miles. A dense fog hid us this morning from the soldiers at the fort. We realize the hand of the Lord in our deliverance thus far. We are camped tonight on Buffalo creek. 18 miles. D.O.R. killed an antelope this evening.

Monday 17 My wife’s birthday[.] Travelled near 30 miles today. We camped on the Platte bottoms near some sloughs of water. We have seen no Indian since we left Prairie creek A rather suspicious circumstance. I stand guard tonight. We are travelling on the North side of the river. Buffalo chips are in use now. We have travelled 9 full days since we left Florence 270 miles. At that rate we will be home in 28 more days.

Tuesday 18 20 miles. C near the Platt[e.] The river is unusually high this season & think it would rather puzzle an army to cross it if they could at all. The spirit of union and love prevails in our camp.

Wednesday 19 Cross’d Skunk creek. Nooned near some sloughs. There has been 2 teams ahead of us ever since we left Genoa. We see their trail very plain & have seen their wagons two or 3 times. Wonder who they are. From a book that we found at one of their camping places I judge they are of the right stripe. Wish we could overtake them. 6 Oclock P.M. Are camped on the Platt[e] river. 23 miles. Have overtaken those teams. They prove to be two families on their way to California from Burlington Iowa. They were in our camp this evening & remarked that they thought there was no danger on the road this season as there was no Indians or d—-d Mormons to be seen or heard of. They did not enquire who we are or what our destination is

Thursday 20 Seven or eight of our horses got away from the guard last night & untill now 3 oclock they have not been found. Several of the boys have gone in search. A cold windy day. 6 oclock. The boys have returned with all the horses except 2. One of the missing ones belongs to Rideout. We are now left with but 3 animals to draw our carriage. A supply train for the Utah army passed up on the opposite side of the river this evening.

Friday 21 16 miles today. C. on Platt[e]. I [have] lost my overcoat a pair of gloves & a silk handkerchief today on the road. I should go back for them but the captain thinks that it would not be safe to do so as we are in a very wild Indian country & he is concerned that we are watched by them all the time. This is quite a loss as it is the only overcoat I have & the weather is very cold of evenings. Have overtaken those two wagons. They prove to be two Dutch families bound for California. They are camped with us tonight & are quite friendly although we have told them who we are. They wish to travel with [us] if they can keep up. For my part I dont want their company but had rather put up with it than have them fall victims to Indian barbarity. Cross’d North bluff fork. Road has been very marshy all day. I have been in mud and water up to the [cr.tch] 4 times.

Saturday 22 24 miles today over sand bluffs & through marshes. Camped on Patite [Petite] creek. Good water & grass and buffalo chips. Those wagons still keep up. I have walked all day & am very tired. A heavy storm is Brewing & we must prepare for it.

Sunday 23 The storm last night was lighter than we expected. We have come 23 miles to day. A sandy road. A pretty day though a stormy evening. Nine Sioux Indians came up to us this evening after we camp’d & requested the privellige of camping with us. They make themselves quite at home. We nooned on Rattlesnake creek where [we] indulged in a nice bath.

Monday 24 The Indians left us early this morning. We have travelled 18 miles to day & are camped opposite Ash Hollow 380 miles from Florence. There is a camp of Sioux close by. They have been with us ever since we have camped. We have traded considerably with them & given them a lot of flour &c. I have bought a pr. of moccasins. They say that a large train of 32 wagons passed up this morning. (A supply train for the Utah army I suppose) They also say that two co’s of U.S. troops 165 men passed up a few days ago, also 2 wagons on this side the river on Saturday last. I don’t like camping so near Ash Hollow as it is one of the most dangerous point[s] on the route.

Tuesday 25 Had a good nights rest. Got a later start on account of the Indians wishing to trade with us. Left them in good feelings.

Have travelled 28 miles to day & although I have walked most of the distance I do not feel tired. We are camped on Crab crick a beautiful stream. Our animals have an abundance of the richest grass. We are in sight of two Indian villages. A few of the Indians are in our camp. The old chief has accepted an invitation to stay all night with us. He is a good looking chap. I come on guard at 2 oclock in the morning so I will away to bed.

Wednesday 26 Left our camping ground early this morning & renewed our journey westward. Cross’d Cobble hills from which we had a splendid view of the Platt[e] & its beautiful vally. We have come up on the north side of this river all the way & do not expect to cross at all. A government train of 27 wagons passd down on the opposite side this morning. I suppose that they had been with a load to Laramie & were returning for another. Have come 28 miles[.] T. Hall run into Ira Mile’s carriage & broke off the fore axel. They had to carry the carriage 4 miles to our present encampment on the Platt[e]. I have walked nearly all day in order to favor T.H. who is unwell. My feet are sore & I am in pain in almost every part of my body. Those Dutchmen are camp’d about 2 m. back, they could not keep up with us any further

Thursday 27 We have made new arrangements in our wagon with regard to our travelling. Have trav. 20 miles today & are camp’d about 5 miles West of Chimney rock. About 3 miles back we met Colonel Thomas L. Kane with an escort of 6 men on their way from G.S.L. City to Washington D.C. The col. went out to Utah a few months since as an especial envoy from Pres. Buchanon [Buchanan] to negotiate terms of peace with Gov. Young, & is now on his return home. His escort is commanded by Howard Egan & are, all of them, mormons. H. E was bearer of a letter from pres B.Y. to us. It informs us that G.S.L. City & all the country North of Utah county has been vacated & left without inhabitants save a few hundred men who have been left in charge of the property. The head quarters of the church is now established in Provo city 50 miles South of G.S.L. City. We are advised that there are between 2 & 3000 U.S. troops on Green river & that they are very hostile to all Mormons & are making prisoners of them wherever they can find them. Col. Johnson is very […ttey]. Gov Cumming has been into G.S.L. City & had an interview with Brigham. The letter stated that the Gov. seems disposed to take hold of the thread of Justice & set us right before the people—that he has officially contradicted many of the false reports that have been made against the Utonians.” He is now with the troops near Bridger but will soon follow the saints to Provo with his wife. Col. Johnson insulted Col. Kane because he had befriended the Saints wheretofore Col. K challenged Col. J to a duel & backed him out. The Saints have an army in Echo Kanyon ready to dispute the further advance of the troops. Pres. B.Y. advises us to take the Sublette cut off to G[r]een river & then take the trail for the head of Echo Kanyon avoiding if possible, any collision with the troops. In case we are met by the troops we are ordered not to fight them for he is anxious that they should strike the first blow. He cautions us against the Indians & mountaineers especially the latter & advises that we are ever on our guard & keep out scouts considerably in advance that we may not fall into a snare. It seems that all hell is boiling over but the boys are not in the least frightened. We intend to go home in spite of all the troops, mountaineers & Indians that are in the mountains the Lord being our helper. The saints intend setting fire to G.S.L. City in case the troops affect an entrance[.] Their grain & all their valuable effects have been cached so they will be ready to apply the torch at a moments warning. Surely there has never been a people on this earth so united as are the saints of Latter Day. Oh! That I may be preserved to arrive among them in peace that I may spend the rest of my days in their society.

Friday 28 Have come about 30 miles to day & are camped a mile from the river. We have had a good road most of the way, D.O.R. bought a buffalo robe of an Indian for 14 pints of flour. Br Pope shot a goose. We have had a perfect gale of wind this afternoon & considerable rain. Pass’d Scotts Bluffs about noon. We continue to keep a vigillant guard both night and day 5 men on at a time. My turn comes every fourth night. The old men have the day guard & are exempt from night duty.

We have prayers night & morning & always ask a blessing on our food if it is nothing more than crackers & water. I suppose there was never a company cross’d these plains more united than we are.

Saturday 29 1 oclock P.M. We are now camped in a beautiful grove of cotton wood trees about 20 miles from Fort Laramie. We intend staying here 4 or 5 hours from the time we stopped, 11 oclock, & then go on a few miles further & camp untill tomorrow evening. Our scouts will be sent ahead in the morning to look at the safest rout for us to travel. We intend passing the fort under the cover of night that we may escape observation. There is but one co. of soldiers there & of course we do not fear them but if they should see us they would send an express to Col. Johnson informing him of our movements which might result in our capture. We wish to pass along unobserved if possible. I am well aware that Col. J. cannot lawfully hinder us from going to our homes but knowing him to have committed many unlawful deeds we do not feel to trust him.

The night continue very cold. I miss my over coat very much.

5 oclock. Camp’d near the river. A French trader has been with us awhile this evening. He says that the ropes of the ferry at Laramie are broken so that they can not cross. The South Platte is so swollen that neither troops or supply trains can cross, in consequence of which there is a scarcity of provisions at the fort. I am to stand guard to night. This is the most dangerous place we have camped at since we left.

Sunday 30 Four wagons drawn by mules passed up the river on the opposite side early this morning. As they appeared to be lightly laden & were going very fast we concluded that it must be an express to Col. Johnson. We had just started when they hove in sight. We came on about 10 miles & camped for noon & to mend a broken wagon. We held a council in which it was decided that as news of our presence had already been received at the fort there would be no utility in trying to pass unnoticed & that we had better hitch up and go on immediately. We had no sooner made this decision tha[n] we proceeded to act upon it. When we were about 2 miles from the fort a heavy roar startled us. On looking around we saw that the whole heavens were becoming obscure with dark heavy clouds which were sending forth ever and anon sharp flashes of lightening. This explained the cause of the roar that had been heard. In the midst of one of the most terrific storms I ever witnessed we rolled past the fort within direct range of her heavy guns. The mingled wind, rain, hail & snow almost blinded me. The storm raged with but one momentary intermission untill we were fairly out of danger & then it ceased—the clouds dispersed & the sun burst forth to cheer and to gladden the hearts of the drenched way worn but happy travelers. When we consider how seldom this part of the country is visited by thunder showers we must acknowledge that this was sent by our Father in heaven to preserve us from the hands of our enemies. Praise the name of Israels God oh ye Elders, for he has this day wrought out a great Deliverance for you. We are camped about 16 miles West of the fort on a beautiful spot with plenty of grass water & wood. The express has passed along since we camped. It stopped at the fort a few hours.

Monday 31 We have come 28 miles to day over a very rough road. The scenery in this part of the country is most grand & beautiful. Vast groves of pine & extensive tracts of rich pasture lands are sights that gladden the hearts of the westward bound traveller especially after he has come this far in the road. We are in a delightful valley this evening & have everything to make us comfortable. We have nice spring water, plenty of grass & an abundance of wood.

Tuesday June 1 We have come 25 miles today. T. Hall, D.O. Rideout & his son were in our carriage this afternoon & in coming down a hill into an ugly rut the jolt of the wagon broke its front axle tree near the center. We bound it up with ropes & came on into camp. Some of the boys providentially found an excellent axel that had been thrown away by some previous company & the brethren have been fitting it into our carriage. It will be stronger when fixed than before this breake down litterly fulfills a prediction I made a few days since[.] We are all in good health & spirits. I was called upon to pray with the company this evening.

Wednesday 2 26 miles to day through heavy sand. Our new axel works as good as the old one did. We turned out two of our animals this morning to recruit & as the load is rather heavy for the two remaining horses we have walked all day. I am very tired. Am on the first watch to night. We are camped on a very muddy stream this evening.

Thursday 3 A cold, windy night & day. 25 miles nearer home. Two of our animals tired out this evening. Br. [John Frederick] Snedaker lent us one till we got into camp. We are now about ½ mile below the mouth of Deer creek where there is quite a settlement of whites who make their living by trading with the Indians & emigrants. Their cattle have eat nearly all the grass, so that our animals are faring very badly. I got away behind the train this afternoon and could not catch up untill after it caralled. Some little difficulty that had existed between two of the brethren was amicably settled this evening.

Travelling through this wind and sand has a very deleterious effect on my eyes. Well I am too tired to write more & will go to my nights rest.

Friday 4 20 miles to day over a very heavy sand road & are camped once more in the Platt[e] bottom.

Our animals get along a great deal better now, but we do not consider it wisdom to ride much untill they recruit more & our load gets lighter.

Saturday 5 pass’d the bridge. We were informed there by some traders that Gen Smith the commander of the Utah expedition, pass’d on his way up yesterday. He was very sick. He thinks that the mormon question will be settled without any blood shed. We nooned on the Platt[e] in what is called the upper crossing, 6 miles above the bridge. The road between the bridge & the upper crossing is more sandy than any we have yet come to & is said to be the worst on the road.

5 oclock P.M. As some traders followed us from the bridge with some horses to trade we concluded to lay by the rest of the day & see if we could get a few head of them. I don’t know how they have got along with their trading. Since we camped here an express has passed us on the way to the army. I am very glad we have stopped here this afternoon for I do not feel able to travel as I am chafed & sore in almost every part of my body.

Sunday 6 Have come 28 miles to day & are camped about ¼ of a mile below Willow Springs. We passed a herd of Mexican sheep this morning on the way to Camp Scott. I stand guard to night.

Monday 7 Started before breakfast this morning. Nooned at Independence Rock on the Sweetwater. We are now near an anonymous stream for the night. My mare tired out again to day & I had to stay behind the train to take care of her. I am very tired but have to prepare our supper. 39 miles is our days travel

Tuesday 8 Started before breakfast again this morning. I suppose this will be the order from this time till we get through. We nooned at the 3 crossings of Sweetwater. Sold my mare to D.O. Rideout for a promise to pay $15[.00] 4 months from date & he has all the risk & care for her. I think it very doubtful about her going through or I should not have sold her at such a price. D.O.R. thinks otherwise & made the offer himself.

28 miles to day & on the Sweetwater still. This is quite a romantic spot. One old mule when crossing the river to day found that the water was rather deep for him to find bottom & he hast swim for it[.] A strong wind has prevented us cooking much supper. A glorious prospect for a storm to night.

Wednesday 9 It has been raining nearly all day. Didn’t get started till after 12 oclock. At the 5th crossing of Sweetwater we met a large party of apostates on their way to the States. I never saw such a hard looking set in my life. One proved to be a daughter of father Galley’s. She had married since he left home & had infant in her arms. The meeting between father & daughter was truly heart rending to witness. Br. John H. Smith had a brother among them whom he had not seen before for 5 years. They say that another & still larger party is a few days journey behind. 2 men in a light carriage nooned with us. They think there would be no danger for us to pass right by the army. The peace commissioners with Gov. Cumming has gone into the valley. Before they started on they posted up bills at camp Scott & surrounding country granting the mormons a free pardon to the poor Mormons for all offences committed up to the end of April [illegible]. It is the opinion of the army generally that peace will be declared as soon as an investigation has been entered into & most of them are angry for they will miss a great deal of fun if they are not allowed to enter the city. We are camped to night 14 miles from where we were this morning on a small stream on Seminole’s cut off. I stand guard to night.

Thursday 10 While I was on guard between 2 & 4 oclock A.M. it began snowing & it has been snowing pretty much all day. It lies between 1 & 2 inches deep on a level. Awful cold. We have come only 18 miles to day & are camped on a small stream[.] That mare that I sold to D.O.R was left behind to day as she was unable to come further. We nooned near two families who professed to be returning Californians. They left there last June & wintered in G.S.L. City. One of the men says he knows my brother Hiram, that he is at present in Echo Kanyon to give a very favorable acct. of the Valley.

Friday 11 An awful cold night & morning. About Noon we met br. Abraham Hatch with some 20 other brethren direct from the Valley via Camp Scott. Br N. Groesbeck was one of the company. Had a long conversation with him on old Times &c. They brought with them a Proclamation by pres. Buchanon to the citizens of Utah, in which he charges upon them a lot of things they are not guilty of but tells them that they are forgiven for every thing they may have done up to the 6th of April last. It is too disgusting to have a place in my journal or I would copy it. Br Hatch & co left G.S.L. City last Saturday & are on their way to the Platt[e] bridge for some goods that was left there last year by N. Groesbeck. While at camp Scott one of their number, John Hoagland an old friend of mine, was arrested on a charge of robbery & for want of bail is still held in […….y.] He is not guilty of the charge & will clear himself as soon as he is brought to trial. His overcoat was brought along through mistake & br Groesbeck gave it to me to take to him. Br G. knows my brother. He says that Gov. Cumming has taken his wife into the city & seems friendly disposed, that Col Johnson threatens to [s.erch ] for G.S.L. City on next Monday & says that he will follow the d-d Mormons to hell but what he will make them submit. The Gov. says that if the offer to enter the city before he receives an answer to his letter to pres Buchanon he will order out the militia for the difense of the territory. The saints were never as much united as they now are. They are prepared to do just what the Lord wants them & have no fears with regard to the issue. He doesnt know what Br Brigham’s intentions are. Br Hatch delivered a discourse to us showing us the position of affairs in Utah. A good spirit prevailed. They did not bring us any message from the president for he was expecting us hourly. We left our brethren about 4 oclock P.M. & came on to the 6th crossing of Sweetwater and here we are camped for the night.

Saturday 12 Started early. Crossed the South Pass & nooned on the Pacific Spring creek; after which we started on again cross a dry Sandy & Little Sandy & are camped on the latter about 30 miles from where we started this morning.

Sunday 13

Monday 14 Yesterday we crossed the big Sandy & took supper on the big bend. Met a party with the U.S. mail who told us that all the troops at camp Scott would be underway to G S L City tomorrow. After supper we hitched up again, took Kinney’s cut off & came some 12 miles further making our days journey 35 miles. We got out of the road & had to camp till this morning. It was about 11 oclock when we stopped. Bro. George & Stephen Goddard have lent 3 of us one of his horses till we get through. This morning we came on to Green river 3 miles for breakfast. This is not the regular rout but we have come this way in order to avoid the troops. We didn’t know how we should get across the river at this point for it has been some 4 yrs since any emigration came this way but as the Lord would have it we found an excellent ferry boat on the East side of the crossing which we immediately rerigged & appropriated to our own use. By [.int] of hard & incessant labor we ferried every thing over in 4 hours & were ready to start on again. After we had all crossed three of the brethren viz. John L. Smith[,] James Craig[,] D O. Rideout & [blank space] Pope took the boat back to where we found it and then swam back again. The river was very high & the current rapid & they had hard work to make the shore.

We are camped to night on a stream some 10 miles from Green river ferry[.] I am on guard to night

Tuesday 15 12 oclock [blank space] M. We have come 15 miles since morning & are now nooning near two springs of the clearest coldest water we have had yet. We are in a small valley between two mountains one of which is covered with snow. The scenery is grand. A hot day. Well I must get dinner.

This afternoon we came across the dead body of an Indian Squaw. She lay by the way side wrapped up in a buffalo robe & other skins. Near by one could see where she had staked her horse which had broke away. We could see too some sticks she had gathered & tried to Kindle into a fire[.] We suppose that she froze to death during the recent storm as every thing indicated that such was the case.

We are camped near a nice grove of mountain asp with every thing at hand to make both man & beast comfortable. Rideout found a small stove about ¼ of a mile back & brought it into cam[p] and we have cooked our suppers on it.

Wednesday 16 We have come over a very rough, ragged country to day. Pass’d through a delightful grove of fir, pine & other evergreens on the side of a mountain. Came in sight of Bear river. Some of us boys came down a long steep ravine in which we found a dead ox laying on his back. He had probably fallen down in this narrow place & being unable to extricate himself, he died. We are now in a beautiful valley between very high mountains. We had a thunder shower at noon. Several horses give out to day. We pass’d through some of the grandest scenery to day I ever beheld. The road has been good.

Thursday 17 Came to Bear river in about 10 miles this morning & came up it about 18 m. & are camped on its banks for the night. I have walked all day & am tired as the mischief. A storm is brewing.

½ hour later. The storm has passed by our camp merely giving us a short call to say “how do ye do?” This is the most crooked road I ever travelled. We have shaped our course to about every point of the compass since we left the regular route. We suppose that we have come no less that 50 miles out of our way. I think we have not been observed yet by either the soldiers or the Indians. The reason why we are trying to avoid the former is, we have learned that they have made a practice of making prisoners of all the Mormons that they can get hold of and detaining them. Many of us have families in the Valley & the circumstances under which they are at present placed render our presence highly necessary; and are therefor anxious to get home as soon as possible. We know that they could prefer no charge against any of us except that of being Mormons but we are satisfied that they would make that a sufficient pretext to capture us if we come in their way. President Buchanon charges this whole people with treason but they could not arrest us on that charge for there is not one in our co. who have been in Utah for a year past. Beside the pres. has forgiven us that crime, if we have committed it.

Friday 18 Left camp at 4 oclock a.m. Arrived at the crossing of Bear river at 11 a.m. The river being very high & rapid & found ourselves under the necessity of ferrying instead of fording as we had hoped to have done. But what should we do without a ferry boat or timber to construct a raft. It is said that necessity is the mother of inventions, it proved so in our case. Says the captain “boys we will convert some of our wagon beds into a ferry & cross her like a top. No sooner said than done. We went to work & lashed two of the best beds together, corked them as well as we could with old shirts & coffee sacks & then bind them outside with a tent. After this we lashed another bed cross wise on the top of the other two & into this we put our luggage harness &c & after several hours hard labor we had everything across. At the same time another party of men were at work drawing the remaining gear of the wagons over by ropes tied to the end of the tongues. Before we got [fe..ly at work br James Andrus fell into the river & came near drowning. He was rescued after he had sunk for the 3rd time. We are camped on the W. bank for the night.

Saturday 19 Took a cut off & have reached Echo Kanyon by coming 25 miles to day. This is much better than we expected. Our horses ran away with our wagon coming down a hill & came near smashing everything to pieces.

Sunday 20 Started early. Passed two merchant trains in Echo Kanyon also Dr. G. Hurt was introduced to the Dr. by br Hall. He is the Indian agent for Utah. A lot of U.S. soldiers are at work on the road in the kanyon. They are going to Rush valley to form a U.S. post. Nooned at the crossing of Weber where we saw a lot of apostates on their way to the states. We are now some 3 miles E of East of East Kanyon & have come 29 miles since morning.

We saw in Echo Kanyon where our boys under General D. H. Wells had thrown up entrenchments, built breastworks & otherwise prepared to give Colonel Johnson a reception. It is a perfect Chief De-[V..] of military skill. The kanyon has been vacated since owing to some treaty that has been made with the commissioners who are now in the Valley.

When we saw the indefatigable labor that the boys had spent on this naturally formidable pass our hearts swelled with joy & gladness & we gave vent to it by repeated shouts.

Monday 21 June Breakfasted about ½ way up the big mountain. Met some boys from home. Nooned between the mountains; After dinner we hitched up once more & rolled into G.S.L. City. We arrived here about 4 oclock P.M. To see this loved city once more gave more real happiness than I had before experienced. It is with joy and thanksgiving that I find myself at home.

Goddard, George, Journal, in George Goddard, Papers 1855-1899, reel 1, box 1, fd. 2.

Sunday May 2nd During the past two weeks I have been preparing for a start, went to Calhoun, DeSoto, Crescent and Bluff City with Bro. Twitchell on a pedling excursion[.] found money very scarce and trade dull. Most of the English Missionaries arrived, several teams went 2½ Miles out of Florence to Camp yesterday, the weather had been very wet and cold, settled up with M.C.Blake[.] he was well satisfied with my services, gave me $5.00 and several articles out of his store towards my outfit[.] denied twice at Sister Aneys, Bluff City, made my home at Bro W.D. Johnson’s for several days, had a good time with Bro Joel Johnson and about 9 of the Elders, had several Jovial and Refreshing meetings at different friends houses, last night about 12 Elders and some neighbours met at W.D. Johnsons[.] after blessing there children by John L. Smith, Bernard Snow & Bro Logan, spent the remainder of the evening in singing &c till nearly 12 o clock[.] this morning it rained till noon and was very cold.

Monday <May> 3rd At ½ past 3 P.M. started on the plains from Bro. W.D. Johnson’s after receiving much hospitality and many Kindnesses at his hands, camped on the Little Papeao, an hour after staking out our animals, from some unknown cause, they all broke loose from fright and Bro Angus Cannons Mules started back for two miles on the road, giving Bro John Snedeker a chase that distance—myself and John Wilson had a good nights rest in the wagon.

Tuesday May 4th Started at ½ past 8 and reached Elk Horne at 2 P.M. where we stayed until the arrival of Bros S. H. Goddard and Angus Cannon at 6 p m and camped there.

Wednesday 5th Started at ½ past 8, nooned at Fremont near the Liberty Pole, a few minutes after we left here, the skane of our axle tree broke, and we returned to Fremont to have it fixed, it hindered us 3½ hours, camped at 8 P.M.

Thursday 6th We started at 7 A M, weather fine[.] travelled 5½ hours, stayed 2 hours for dinner, and camped by a deep Slough

Friday <May> 7th After packing our load over on horseback we went on our way rejoicing through a wet morning, early in the afternoon Bro Angus Cannon and myself started ahead on horseback and after being drenched with rain we reached Genoa between 7 and 8 o clock, the main company having arrived there 4 hours before us

Saturday 8th Breakfasted at Bro Pecks, between 9 and 10[.] Angus’ team and mine came in, we had two new axle trees made for our carriage and done other repairs necessary for safe travelling

Sunday 9th Had the carriage finished, in the afternoon went to the meeting and spoke a few minutes after which assisted in getting over the last two waggons of our company over the Loup Forke [Fork], stood guard from 11 to 1 A M, about this time it began to rain and continued for 7 hours, making us very wet in our beds

Monday 10th removed from the river to a good camp place about two miles where we stayed for the day

Tuesday 11th Went 6 or 7 Miles further and remained till the other division of the company came up.

Wednesday 12th At 7 o clock we left the camp ground in good health and spirits[.] the Company consists of 108 Men[,] 1 Boy[,] 1 Woman[,] 2 Children, making in all 112 Souls, John W Berry, Captain of the whole company, David Brinton Captain of the one division, comprising the United States and Canada Missionaries, there are 20 Wagons in the entire company, we travelled about 25 Miles to day and camped at ½ past 4 P.M. Bro David O. Rideout’s Son, John G was baptised yesterday by his Father and confirmed by Tho[ma]s. Hall and several of the elders

Thursday 13th Travelled over 20 Miles and camped on Prairie Creek which was very difficult to cross being very muddy and a steep pitch in going in and almost as bad going out

Friday 14th Crossing a bad slough this morning[,] 3 wagons got stuck and a few trifling breakages occurred, nooned on Prairie Creek, saw several Buffalo on this creek, camped at the lone tree after a travel of 24 or 25 Miles

Saturday 15th Moved on at ¼ past 7. arrived at Wood River at 11, remained till after 4 P.M. and then travelled till midnight[.] this was done to avoid observation from Fort Kearney, at this time a dense atmosphere surrounded us, and continued with little rain until after we got several miles on this side Kearney, which we all regarded as a special manifestation of the favour of God, started at day break

Sunday 16th travelled till 9 A M and camped on Elm Creek, held a meeting and rec[eive]d some excellent instruction from Captn. Berry and others, at near 3 P M we started and camped on Buffalo Creek camp in first rate spirits and in good health

Monday 17 At ¼ past 7 the camp moved on, travelled till near noon, here we remained till ½ past 2 then on again till near sun down making over 25 miles[.] Animals much fatigued[.] 2 or 3 gave out &c

Tuesday 18th Travelled to Skunk Creek, camped at ½ past 4,

Wednesday 19th Camp in good health, started at ½ past 7 and travelled about 25 miles and camped on the platte

Thursday 20th From to to 7 horses stampeded and went on the road back between 9 & 10 oclock last night and Bros W Smith, J[ames] Andrus and Tho[ma]s Browning have been out all night in search of them, and after a chase of near 50 miles from camp they overtook five and finally succeeded in securing them, and returned to camp at 5 P M, animals and men much fatigued, having travelled about 100 miles in 18 hours, two horses are still missing one belonging to Captain [David] Brinton the other to Bro [David Oliver] Rideout, very cold and windy all day

Friday 21st Started from camp about the usual time and after crossing 9 or 10 Muddy creeks or Sloughs camped one mile West of North Bluff Fork 18 m

Saturday 22nd Very foggy and heavy dew, passed over 3 sandy bluffs, several creeks & sandy roads[.] travelled over 20 miles

Sunday 23rd Clear sky, fine day till 4 p m, crossed many streams, made 25 miles travel, had a good bathe

Monday 24th Crossed several creeks, sandy Bluffs and

sloughy bottom, making it a heavy days pull, camped opposite Ash Hollow after passing a band of Ogallallah Siouz Indians and learned from them that the first Train passing on the south side was seen at 10 A.M this morning.

Tuesday May 25th fine morning[.] passed through Castle Creek[.] travelled about 12 Miles & nooned, at 20 m to 3 moved on at good speed till we reached Crab Creek and found the best water and feed we had yet met with, saw 20 Lodges on the south side of the platt[e], and a few on this, the Indians seem very friendly

Wednesday 26th Started 10 m to 7, fine cool morning, passed over a long steep sandy Bluff, saw between 20 & 30 Wagons on the south of platte returning, supposed to be an empty supply train from Laramie, travelled a little over 4 hours and nooned, travelled between 5 & 6 hours and camped opposite Court House Rock, this afternoon the weather was very hot and the road mostly sandy, Men and Animals much fatigued

Thursday 27th Up at 4 and started at 7. cool and refreshing, nooned at on the platte nearly opposite Chimney Rock, about two hours after we left here, Bros J. Murdock & Van Eltan came up to us from the lower road, who with Worthing Knowles, …. West, & Howard Egan were escorting Col Kane to the states, we turned off nearly a mile to receive from the Brethren instructions from President B Young in a letter which was read to all our camp, the contents made every heart rejoice, we camped about 8 Miles above Chimney Rock, here we had to use Sage Brush for the first time, wind blowing very hard

Friday 28th up at 20 m p 4, fine M, with sharp frost, started at 7[.] travelled 5 hours over a good road, passing by Scots Bluffs and nooned on the platte, after which we continued our journey over a good road till near Sun down and camped at least a mile from water and scarcely anything for fuel making about 28 miles to day, or 30 to Laramie, good feed for animals

Saturday 29 Started at 20 m past 7 and stayed at the first timber on the north side of the platte, stayed 3 hours, saw 3 Teams, with to moving up on the s side of Platte, road good and camped near the platte

Sunday 30 Cold night, clouded sky, Laramie Peak covered with snow, started to go a few miles intending to pass Laramie in the night but discovered the mail of 4 waggons rapidly going to Fort Laramie along the south route[.] Captn Berry concluded to pass by day light, travelled over very sandy road to raw hide creek & crossed it, passed over riverbluffs near the river, saw a large band of Horses going towards Laramie, took the road for Laramie Ford, within 3 miles a heavy storm of rain and hail commenced and continued to fall in torrents until we had passed it nearly two miles, saw the Fort house, when the storm was over the ground was covered near an inch deep with hail stones and was bitter cold, many of us were drenched to the skin, and though in many places pools of water was lying in our way, the whole camp kept on the march until we had gone 6 miles beyond Laramie where we had excellent feed and water, clouds disappeared and a clear blue sky with a warm sun and a good fire made of pine cheered and warmed us up after the storm.

Monday May 31 Camp all well, up at ¼ past 4, breakfasted and started at ½ past 6, travelled 3½ hours, stayed for refreshment till 25 15 m to 12, and traveleld till ¼ past 4, here we stopped again for our animals to recruit, having passed over many long, steep and stoney hills usually called the Black Hills which are litterally covered with Cedar and Pine trees as far as the eye can reach, and present to the traveller many picturesque views that are no where else to be seen, we continued till near sun down and camped on what is called the alder clump making about 30 miles to day

Tuesday June 1 Started at 7, fine morning; all well, travelled 4 hours and rested till 1 o clock, on again till after 4, and camped on the platte, feed scanty, here we stayed for the night owing to Bro Halls Axle tree breaking and a new one needed, 21 miles to day.

Wednesday June 2nd Thunder & Lightening with little rain in the night, camp starts at ½ past 6 along a good road and halts at ½ past 10, ¾ of a mile from river, on again at 2 p m, and after going over some very steep hills and crooked places and considerable sand, we camped by the side of a very rapid and muddy stream occasioned by a heavy storm that passed over this morning (26 miles)

Thursday June 3 last night myself and Enock [Enoch] Reese were requested to act as Teachers and preach the necessity of reformation among some of the Elders of this camp, stood guard from 10 to 12[.] up at 4, began to rain & blow and was very cold. Started at ¼ to 7. and travelled 3 hours and ¾ over a succession of steep and difficult hills, nooned near the platte, we left the Black Hills behind us this morning. Started again at ¼ to 1 and camped nearly opposite the Deer Creek station on the platte, plenty of wood & water but scarcely any feed for Animals

Friday 4th at ¼ to 7 we started over a very heavy sand and steep long hills and at 9 stayed for the Animals to feed, at 11 moved on, news from the Traders at Deer Creek reached us, that our families were returning to their old habitation owing to peace being restored at Utah, travelled till 2 and – – – untill near sun down, campd a few miles below platte Bridge

Saturday 5th Started ¼ to 7, and went over the heaviest sand bed we had met with, passed by the platte bridge, and sta camped at 11 A M at the upper crossing of the platte, here we rested through the day, several trades was made by the Captain & Bro Cannon with the Traders camped near the Bridge, I bathed in the river

Sunday 6thJune. Fine morn, started …. ½ past 6[.] halted at Mineral Springs, staid 2½ hours, Gabrial Huntsmans Axle tree broke, and was rep[aire]d by S H Goddard[.] passed over a very rough road that was cut up by the heavy Government Wagons, camped on Willow Springs at ¼ past 6

Monday 7th I was on guard from 12 till 2, fine morning, camp up at day break[.] off at 5 m past 4[,] travelled 9 1/3 miles and breakfasted on Grease wood [Greasewood] creek at ½ past 6, off again at ½ past 8, passed over some good road, also some sand beds, passed by the trading post on Sweet Water, and forded the river rather than pay 2 dollars per wagon to go over the bridge, left Independance [Independence] Rock on the right, nooned after crossing the river for two hours and started again, passing Devils Gate[.] saw the ruins of Fort built by Mormons, crossed 3 Creeks, also some heavy Salaratus bedsroads, and camped on the deep ravine, travelled 34 Miles

Tuesday June 8 Off at 10 m past 4, passed several sand ridges, halted at 6 for breakfast on Sweet Water, stayed for 2½ hours, went on to the 2nd crossing of Sweet Water and nooned, the mail from Bridger passed us at 10 m past 10 about 11 miles below, we then forded three more crossings of sweet water, camped on the 5th[.] wind very high, made our bed at the foot of a long stoney mountain[.] began to rain about 2 A M on

Wednesday June 9th and continued most of the day which detained us, the Quartermasters mail came up, with two young men & 5 mules, they reported all quiet at Bridger, We, about 12 of us ascended the highest peak around here and sung several tunes, too cold, wet & windy to bake bread this Morning. Met 1 Hand Cart & 8 or 10 Wagons with apostates in[.] T French & Wife put out about 3 p m[,] Stewart & Family, Gallands daughter & friend among the members[.] and travelled 12 miles

June 10th It snowed considerable through the night, several inches deep on our bed[,] started early while snowing[,] went 9 miles and halted[;] detained several hours owing to the storm, Mr Hersey a Californian came to our camp who had wintered in the Valley bearing a good report of our people and he was well acquainted with Orson Hyde &c 12 months to day our Hand Cart Train arrived in Florence on welting under a burning sun, now we are in the midst of a cold winterly snow storm[.] about 1 p m we went on for several hours over some very long steep hills, and camped on a […..ing] stream, to day noon Bros Wilkin, Margets &c cached 6 Iron Axle Trees[.] soon after we camped[,] the storm cleared off and we had a fine star light frosty night, I stood guard on 1st watch

Friday June 11th severe frost in the night[.] Ice one inch thick in some places and snow 1 foot deep, it was a regular N E Storm, started 20 m. to 5[.] camped rolled over rough rocky ridges, met 5 Horse Wagons with, reported [ret.] 25 Teamsters to each report and several on Horse back, travelled 2½ hours and halted for breakfast and after travelling some two hours we met several of our boys from the Valley who Kindly aided some of our company with Beef and Bacon which was very acceptable, we then travell’d on to the last crossing of Sweet Water & camped

Saturday June 12th Started early and in a few minutes crossed the divide on South Pass and halted for Breakfast on the pacific Spring Creek, then passed over dry sandy and some sand beds & halted for dinner, went on to little Sandy and camped on the same between 2 & 3 miles after we had crossed it

Sunday June 13 Started at ½ past 4 and after 1½ hours crot [crossed] over a beautiful road, halted for breakfast on Big Sandy, after which we soon came to the camp ground where the we found a large quantity of Wagon Iron[.] this we supposed to be the fragments of 26 Government freight Wagons destroyed last fall by fire, we soon halted on a hill for dinner, without any water for our horses, while here the Mail from Bridger passed us, and reported that a company of Soldiers had started for Salt Lake City yesterday[.] another was to go to day, and the balance tomorrow. Went a few miles further and halted for supper on the large bend of Big Sandy, at ¼ to 7 went on again toalong Kennys cut off till ½ past 10 and having gone ½ a mile off our track, we had to camp for the night without wood, water or feed and tied our animals to the wheels.

Monday June 14Started early and got to Green River before 6 A M[.] Breakfasted, saw a Ferry Boat tied up, used it to Ferry over our Wagons and by 2 o clock we were all on the west side of the river and felt to acknowledge the hand of the Lord in this as also in many other special manifestatio[ns] of his favour and protection. Then at ¼ to 3pm we started and went over a very uneven hilly country for three hours & ¾ and camped on a clear stream, whe feed scanty.

Tuesday June 15 Off at 20 m past 4, travelled over a fine hard road for 1 hour & ¾ & Breakfasted after which we went for 2½ hours more, and found the very best camping place we had ever met with, there were several springs of pure cold water plenty of sage brush, and abundance of the best feed for animals, here we stayed 3 hours to recruit, at ¼ to 3 we moved on for a few hours & camped

Wednesday 16th Off at ¼ past 4[.] travelled 1½ hours & Breakfasted, after 5 hours & ¼ more travel halted for noon, while here a heavy thunder storm came on & detained us nearly an hour, started again at 3 p m and after ascending and descending some of the longest, steepest, Rockiest & most difficult mountains we had ever seen, we camped between 6 & 7 p m in a very secluded place, surrounded with high mountains, Bro Halls team gave out this noon & Bro. Gardner [….d] in his mare & mule & drove team for him this morning, Bros Reese, W Smith, W McCrary & John L Smith was sent as skouts at the ahead of the Train,

Thursday June 17 Rained through the night & this morning, had breakfast & started at ½ past 6[.] travelled 6 miles and struck Bear River and took a south East course along its banks till 11 a m and halted for dinner, started again at 10 m past 1 and travelled till 10 m past 6 making 30 miles to day & camped in a bend on Bear River

Friday June 18 Off at ½ past 4, went 2¾ hours or 9 miles & breakfasted, started at ¼ past 9 and drove till 11, here we lashed 2 Wagon Boxes together and one at the top to ferry our provisions, Harness &c over Bear River, after two loads had been taken over and Bro James Andrus returning in the empty box, the bottom ones filled with water and began to sink, he Kept his seat until the water came up to his breast, and as several things which were left in the box were seen floating down the river, he plunged in after them, he caught hold of a Bucket and endeavored to feel the Bottom of the river but the water was too deep and in trying to use his legs again to swim to shore found it impossible as his boots had filled, he loosed his hold of the bucket and gave himself up to his fate, he became exhausted and went under twice[.] the stream by this time had taken him near enough the shore to allow Bro Metcalf to lay hold of him and when taken out was unconscious for a short time, the wagon boxes were then secured with covers which kept the wagon water from coming through so much, and all was got over safe on the west side of Bear River

Saturday June 19 After breakfast we started and crossed two creeks, one of which was very miry and difficult to cross, it we continued our journey through an unknown pathroad until we struck a trail which brot us into the head of Echo Kanyon to the extreme joy of all the company, it began to rain & continued most of the night, 27 miles to day.

Sunday June 20 fine morning, water frozen in the Bucket[.] started at ½ past 4. we soon came into the regular road about a mile below Cache Cave, and saw a small company of 4 Wagons with mule teams belonging to D. [Hu.. .] also a few empty Government Wagons with 6 mules to each going to ferry the soldiers over Weber, a company of sappers & Miners also two companys of soldiers, and was told that Col Johnson with the rest of his command was only 12 miles behind, so that in consequence of our company taking Kenney cut off, we managed to get ahead of Johnsons army without their Knowledge, surely the hand of the Lord was here being made manifest, we halted for breakfast and 26 Wagons of Merchandise passed us belonging to Perry & Co[.] at 10 m to 9 we started again and arrived at Weber between 11 & 12 and all the company safely forded over by 2 o clock[.] after dinner we continued till we arrived a mile or two west of the divide and camped[.] 38 miles

Monday June 21 Started at 4 o clock and after crossing east Kanyon creek 11 times we halted about ½ way up the Big Mountain for breakfast making 11 miles, arrived at the top at ¼ to 11 and stopped at 20 m past 12 for dinner at the foot of the little mountain, at 25 m to 3 we started, and arrived at Salt Lake City between 6 & 7, greeted warmly by our friends who had been left as a guard to the City, the women and children had all left and went south